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RTSP 流

RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol),实时流协议,是一种应用层协议,专为流媒体使用。本文将介绍 GStreamer, VLC, FFmpeg 这几个工具,如何发送、接收 RTSP 流。

前提#

GStreamer#

安装:

sudo apt install libgstreamer1.0-0 gstreamer1.0-plugins-base gstreamer1.0-plugins-good gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly gstreamer1.0-libav gstreamer1.0-doc gstreamer1.0-tools gstreamer1.0-x gstreamer1.0-alsa gstreamer1.0-gl gstreamer1.0-gtk3 gstreamer1.0-qt5 gstreamer1.0-pulseaudio

查看所有插件:

# conda deactivategst-inspect-1.0 -a

播放 ~/Videos/test.mp4 文件:

gst-launch-1.0 filesrc location=~/Videos/test.mp4 ! decodebin ! autovideosink

播放 /dev/video0 webcam:

gst-launch-1.0 v4l2src device=/dev/video0 \! video/x-raw, format=YUY2, width=640, height=480, framerate=30/1 \! autovideosink

/dev/video0 相关信息,可见后文“关于 Webcam”。

GStreamer RTSP Server#

编译 test-launch 例子:

sudo apt install libgstreamer1.0-dev libgstrtspserver-1.0
git clone https://github.com/GStreamer/gst-rtsp-server.git
cd gst-rtsp-server/git checkout 1.18
cd examples/gcc test-launch.c -o test-launch $(pkg-config --cflags --libs gstreamer-rtsp-server-1.0)

test-launch 发送 RTSP 测试流:

$ ./test-launch "videotestsrc ! x264enc ! rtph264pay name=pay0 pt=96"stream ready at rtsp://127.0.0.1:8554/test

gst-launch 接收 RTSP 测试流:

gst-launch-1.0 playbin uri=rtsp://127.0.0.1:8554/test

发送 RTSP,以 test-launch#

发送 ~/Videos/test.mp4 文件:

./test-launch "filesrc location=/home/john/Videos/test.mp4 ! decodebin ! x264enc ! rtph264pay name=pay0 pt=96"

发送 /dev/video0 webcam:

./test-launch "v4l2src device=/dev/video0 ! video/x-raw,format=YUY2,width=640,height=480 ! videoconvert ! x264enc ! rtph264pay name=pay0 pt=96"

接收 RTSP,以 gst-launch#

gst-launch-1.0 playbin uri=rtsp://127.0.0.1:8554/test# orgst-launch-1.0 rtspsrc location=rtsp://127.0.0.1:8554/test ! decodebin ! autovideosink

参考#

VLC#

安装:

sudo snap install vlc# allow camera permissionsnap connect vlc:camera :camera

查看可用模块:

vlc --list

播放 ~/Videos/test.mp4 文件:

vlc file:///home/john/Videos/test.mp4

播放 /dev/video0 webcam:

vlc v4l2:///dev/video0:chroma=mjpg:width=640:height=480:fps=30

发送 RTSP,以 vlc#

发送 ~/Videos/test.mp4 文件:

vlc file:///home/john/Videos/test.mp4 \--sout '#transcode{vcodec=h264}:rtp{sdp=rtsp://:8554/test}'

发送 /dev/video0 webcam:

vlc v4l2:///dev/video0:chroma=yuyv:width=640:height=480:fps=30 \--sout '#transcode{vcodec=h264,width=640,height=480}:rtp{sdp=rtsp://:8554/test}'

接收 RTSP,以 vlc#

vlc rtsp://127.0.0.1:8554/test

参考#

FFmpeg#

安装:

sudo apt install ffmpeg

发送 RTSP,以 ffserver#

配置 ffserver.conf

HTTPPort 8091HTTPBindAddress 0.0.0.0RTSPPort 1554MaxHTTPConnections 2000MaxClients 1000MaxBandwidth 1000CustomLog -
<Stream test.mp4>  File "/home/john/Videos/test.mp4"  Format rtp</Stream>

开启 ffserver

$ nohup ffserver -f ffserver.conf &
$ tail nohup.out  libavcodec     57.107.100 / 57.107.100  libavformat    57. 83.100 / 57. 83.100  libavdevice    57. 10.100 / 57. 10.100  libavfilter     6.107.100 /  6.107.100  libavresample   3.  7.  0 /  3.  7.  0  libswscale      4.  8.100 /  4.  8.100  libswresample   2.  9.100 /  2.  9.100  libpostproc    54.  7.100 / 54.  7.100Wed Apr 21 11:28:39 2021 Opening feed file '/home/john/Videos/test.mp4' for stream 'test.mp4'Wed Apr 21 11:28:39 2021 FFserver started.

接收 RTSP,以 ffplay#

ffplay rtsp://127.0.0.1:1554/test.mp4

参考#

关于 Media#

$ sudo apt install ffmpeg
$ ffprobe ~/Videos/test.mp4ffprobe version 3.4.8-0ubuntu0.2 Copyright (c) 2007-2020 the FFmpeg developers  built with gcc 7 (Ubuntu 7.5.0-3ubuntu1~18.04)  configuration: --prefix=/usr --extra-version=0ubuntu0.2 --toolchain=hardened --libdir=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu --incdir=/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu --enable-gpl --disable-stripping --enable-avresample --enable-avisynth --enable-gnutls --enable-ladspa --enable-libass --enable-libbluray --enable-libbs2b --enable-libcaca --enable-libcdio --enable-libflite --enable-libfontconfig --enable-libfreetype --enable-libfribidi --enable-libgme --enable-libgsm --enable-libmp3lame --enable-libmysofa --enable-libopenjpeg --enable-libopenmpt --enable-libopus --enable-libpulse --enable-librubberband --enable-librsvg --enable-libshine --enable-libsnappy --enable-libsoxr --enable-libspeex --enable-libssh --enable-libtheora --enable-libtwolame --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx --enable-libwavpack --enable-libwebp --enable-libx265 --enable-libxml2 --enable-libxvid --enable-libzmq --enable-libzvbi --enable-omx --enable-openal --enable-opengl --enable-sdl2 --enable-libdc1394 --enable-libdrm --enable-libiec61883 --enable-chromaprint --enable-frei0r --enable-libopencv --enable-libx264 --enable-shared  libavutil      55. 78.100 / 55. 78.100  libavcodec     57.107.100 / 57.107.100  libavformat    57. 83.100 / 57. 83.100  libavdevice    57. 10.100 / 57. 10.100  libavfilter     6.107.100 /  6.107.100  libavresample   3.  7.  0 /  3.  7.  0  libswscale      4.  8.100 /  4.  8.100  libswresample   2.  9.100 /  2.  9.100  libpostproc    54.  7.100 / 54.  7.100Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '/home/john/Videos/test.mp4':  Metadata:    major_brand     : isom    minor_version   : 512    compatible_brands: isomiso2avc1mp41    encoder         : Lavf58.20.100  Duration: 00:10:22.04, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 4205 kb/s    Stream #0:0(und): Video: h264 (Main) (avc1 / 0x31637661), yuv420p, 1920x1080, 4204 kb/s, 25 fps, 25 tbr, 1200k tbn, 2400k tbc (default)    Metadata:      handler_name    : VideoHandler

关于 Webcam#

$ sudo apt install v4l-utils
$ v4l2-ctl --list-devicesHD Webcam: HD Webcam (usb-0000:00:14.0-13):    /dev/video0    /dev/video1
$ v4l2-ctl -d 0 --list-formats-extioctl: VIDIOC_ENUM_FMT    Index       : 0    Type        : Video Capture    Pixel Format: 'MJPG' (compressed)    Name        : Motion-JPEG        Size: Discrete 640x480            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 1280x720            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 640x360            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 352x288            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 320x240            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 176x144            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 160x120            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)
    Index       : 1    Type        : Video Capture    Pixel Format: 'YUYV'    Name        : YUYV 4:2:2        Size: Discrete 640x480            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)            Interval: Discrete 0.050s (20.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 1280x720            Interval: Discrete 0.100s (10.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 640x360            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 352x288            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 320x240            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 176x144            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)        Size: Discrete 160x120            Interval: Discrete 0.033s (30.000 fps)