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Ubuntu 18 初始配置

建议最小化安装 Ubuntu 系统,精简不必要的软件!

Ubuntu 镜像#

用于 apt 加速。首先,选择你的 Ubuntu 版本的配置,

然后,替换进 /etc/apt/sources.list

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.backupsudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list
sudo apt update

中文输入法#

  1. 打开 SettingsRegion & Language 配置页,点击 Manage Installed Language 弹出 Language Support 窗口
  2. Language Support 窗口,点击 Install/Remove Languages ,勾选 Chinese (simplified)Apply 安装语言
    • Keyboard Input method systemIBus
  3. 回到 Region & Language 配置页, Input Sources 下点击 + ,选择 ChineseChinese (Intelligent Pinyin) 完成
  4. 打开 SettingsDevices Keyboard 配置页,可修改 Typing 快捷键。默认 Super+Space 切换输入。
    • Chinese (Intelligent Pinyin)Shift 切换中英。

SSH 配置#

远程机器启用 SSH 服务:

# 安装服务sudo apt install openssh-server# 启动服务sudo service ssh start# 检查服务ps -aux | grep ssh

如果要免密登录,可把公钥复制进 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys。或者,本地机器写进远程机器:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub remote@0.0.0.0

本地机器添加 SSH 私钥:

# 如果没有,则生成秘钥#  私钥 id_rsa 公钥 id_rsa.pubssh-keygen -t rsa -C "ikuokuo@hotmail.com"
# 把已有私钥放进 ~/.ssh/mkdir -p ~/.ssh/mv id_rsa ~/.ssh/chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
# 添加进 ssh-agentssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa
# 测试是否成功ssh -T remote@0.0.0.0

配置 ~/.ssh/config,可设 Host 昵称,如用于 GitHub 多账户:

Host github.com  HostName github.com  PreferredAuthentications publickey  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa

exFAT 驱动#

支持 exFAT 格式的移动硬盘。 exFAT 于 macOS, Windows 可读写;文件和分区的大小,可到 128PB 。

sudo apt install exfat-fuse exfat-utils

Nvidia 驱动#

如果是 N 卡,可安装 Nvidia 驱动。推荐使用 graphics drivers PPA 方式:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:graphics-drivers/ppasudo apt update

如果安装 CUDA Toolkit ,请先了解 CUDA Compatibility 。安装 CUDA Toolkit 时,注意其携带的驱动版本,最好将其与驱动分别进行安装。而驱动从官方上直接找合适的版本。

查看驱动信息#

Settings > Details > About, Graphics: 查看显卡驱动

$ ubuntu-drivers devices== /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.3 ==modalias : pci:v00008086d000006F0sv00008086sd000002A4bc02sc80i00vendor   : Intel Corporationmanual_install: Truedriver   : backport-iwlwifi-dkms - distro free
$ lspci | grep -i vga00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Device 9bc4 (rev 05)01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation Device 1f15 (rev a1)
$ lspci -v -s 01:00.001:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation Device 1f15 (rev a1) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])  Subsystem: Device 1d05:1097  Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 159  Memory at c5000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]  Memory at b0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]  Memory at c0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M]  I/O ports at 6000 [size=128]  Expansion ROM at c6000000 [disabled] [size=512K]  Capabilities: <access denied>  Kernel driver in use: nouveau  Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau

安装 Nvidia 驱动#

apt-cache search nvidia | grep ^nvidia-driver
sudo apt install nvidia-driver-440

查看 Nvidia 驱动信息#

$ nvidia-smiFri Apr 17 07:31:55 2020+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+| NVIDIA-SMI 440.82       Driver Version: 440.82       CUDA Version: 10.2     ||-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+| GPU  Name        Persistence-M| Bus-Id        Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC || Fan  Temp  Perf  Pwr:Usage/Cap|         Memory-Usage | GPU-Util  Compute M. ||===============================+======================+======================||   0  GeForce RTX 2060    Off  | 00000000:01:00.0 Off |                  N/A || N/A   40C    P8     5W /  N/A |    263MiB /  5934MiB |      3%      Default |+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Processes:                                                       GPU Memory ||  GPU       PID   Type   Process name                             Usage      ||=============================================================================||    0      1560      G   /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg                           144MiB ||    0      1726      G   /usr/bin/gnome-shell                          76MiB ||    0      2063      G   ...uest-channel-token=10544833948196615517    39MiB |+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
# after reboot$ nvidia-settings

常用工具#

ifconfig 查网络:

sudo apt install -y net-toolsifconfig

htop 查进程:

sudo apt install -y htophtop# 或,系统监控器gnome-system-monitor -r# 或,查 CPU 信息cat /proc/cpuinfo

iostat 查 IO:

iostat -x -m 1 8# 或,iotopsudo apt install -y iotopsudo iotop

nvidia-smi 查 GPU:

# 持续监测nvidia-smi dmon# 或,watch -d -n 1 nvidia-smi

lshw 查硬件:

lshw -short# 如,查产品型号sudo lshw -C system

更多见 Linux Performance,如:

桌面优化#

可用 Tweaks 优化或定制 GNOME 桌面。其扩展可见: https://extensions.gnome.org

sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

屏幕分享#

Settings > Sharing > Screen Sharing ,启用屏幕分享。

系统最小化安装时,或于某些嵌入式版本的 Ubuntu ,不存在上述选项,需安装:

# 安装服务sudo apt install vino
# 启用服务/usr/lib/vino/vino-server
# SSH 登录启用服务/usr/lib/vino/vino-server --display=:0

配置需关闭 require-encryption ,此后如 macOS Screen Sharing 等才可登录:

# sudo apt install dconf-editorsudo apt install dconf-toolsdconf write /org/gnome/desktop/remote-access/require-encryption false

Ubuntu 可用 Remmina 客户端软件, VNC 进入远程桌面:

sudo apt install remmina remmina-plugin-vnc

屏幕录制#

  • Kazam: 屏幕录制
  • HandBrake: 格式转换

因为 Kazam 录制格式于其他平台可能存在问题,如微信。可用 HandBrake 转换成 MPEG-4 再分享。

sudo apt install kazam handbrake

媒体播放#

VLC media player 跨平台多媒体播放器及框架:

sudo snap install vlc

开发软件#

编译#

sudo apt install build-essential cmake git

编辑#

调试#

gdb 调试:

gdb --args <prog>

pstack 查进程堆栈:

sudo apt install -y pstackpstack <pid>

strace 查进程堆栈:

sudo apt install -y stracestrace -o strace.txt -Ttt -f -p <pid>

Valgrind 调试或分析:

sudo apt install -y valgrind kcachegrind

MySQL#

MySQL Workbench 图形化管理工具:

sudo apt install -y mysql-workbench

Redis#

Redis Desktop Manager 图形化管理工具:

sudo snap install redis-desktop-manager

命令行工具:

$ sudo apt install -y redis-tools$ redis-cli -h <ip> -p <port>> AUTH password> INFO

模型可视化#

Netron#

sudo snap install netron