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Ubuntu 18 初始配置

建议最小化安装 Ubuntu 系统,精简不必要的软件!

Ubuntu 镜像#

用于 apt 加速。首先,选择你的 Ubuntu 版本的配置,

然后,替换进 /etc/apt/sources.list

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.backup
sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list
sudo apt update

中文输入法#

  1. 打开 SettingsRegion & Language 配置页,点击 Manage Installed Language 弹出 Language Support 窗口
  2. Language Support 窗口,点击 Install/Remove Languages ,勾选 Chinese (simplified)Apply 安装语言
    • Keyboard Input method systemIBus
  3. 回到 Region & Language 配置页, Input Sources 下点击 + ,选择 ChineseChinese (Intelligent Pinyin) 完成
  4. 打开 SettingsDevices Keyboard 配置页,可修改 Typing 快捷键。默认 Super+Space 切换输入。
    • Chinese (Intelligent Pinyin)Shift 切换中英。

SSH 配置#

远程机器启用 SSH 服务:

# 安装服务
sudo apt install openssh-server
# 启动服务
sudo service ssh start
# 检查服务
ps -aux | grep ssh

如果要免密登录,可把公钥复制进 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys。或者,本地机器写进远程机器:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub remote@0.0.0.0

本地机器添加 SSH 私钥:

# 如果没有,则生成秘钥
# 私钥 id_rsa 公钥 id_rsa.pub
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "ikuokuo@hotmail.com"
# 把已有私钥放进 ~/.ssh/
mkdir -p ~/.ssh/
mv id_rsa ~/.ssh/
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
# 添加进 ssh-agent
ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa
# 测试是否成功
ssh -T remote@0.0.0.0

配置 ~/.ssh/config,可设 Host 昵称,如用于 GitHub 多账户:

Host github.com
HostName github.com
PreferredAuthentications publickey
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa

exFAT 驱动#

支持 exFAT 格式的移动硬盘。 exFAT 于 macOS, Windows 可读写;文件和分区的大小,可到 128PB 。

sudo apt install exfat-fuse exfat-utils

Nvidia 驱动#

如果是 N 卡,可安装 Nvidia 驱动。推荐使用 graphics drivers PPA 方式:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:graphics-drivers/ppa
sudo apt update

如果安装 CUDA Toolkit ,请先了解 CUDA Compatibility 。安装 CUDA Toolkit 时,注意其携带的驱动版本,最好将其与驱动分别进行安装。而驱动从官方上直接找合适的版本。

查看驱动信息#

Settings > Details > About, Graphics: 查看显卡驱动

$ ubuntu-drivers devices
== /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:14.3 ==
modalias : pci:v00008086d000006F0sv00008086sd000002A4bc02sc80i00
vendor : Intel Corporation
manual_install: True
driver : backport-iwlwifi-dkms - distro free
$ lspci | grep -i vga
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Device 9bc4 (rev 05)
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation Device 1f15 (rev a1)
$ lspci -v -s 01:00.0
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation Device 1f15 (rev a1) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
Subsystem: Device 1d05:1097
Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 159
Memory at c5000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
Memory at b0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
Memory at c0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M]
I/O ports at 6000 [size=128]
Expansion ROM at c6000000 [disabled] [size=512K]
Capabilities: <access denied>
Kernel driver in use: nouveau
Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau

安装 Nvidia 驱动#

apt-cache search nvidia | grep ^nvidia-driver
sudo apt install nvidia-driver-440

查看 Nvidia 驱动信息#

$ nvidia-smi
Fri Apr 17 07:31:55 2020
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| NVIDIA-SMI 440.82 Driver Version: 440.82 CUDA Version: 10.2 |
|-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| GPU Name Persistence-M| Bus-Id Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan Temp Perf Pwr:Usage/Cap| Memory-Usage | GPU-Util Compute M. |
|===============================+======================+======================|
| 0 GeForce RTX 2060 Off | 00000000:01:00.0 Off | N/A |
| N/A 40C P8 5W / N/A | 263MiB / 5934MiB | 3% Default |
+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Processes: GPU Memory |
| GPU PID Type Process name Usage |
|=============================================================================|
| 0 1560 G /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg 144MiB |
| 0 1726 G /usr/bin/gnome-shell 76MiB |
| 0 2063 G ...uest-channel-token=10544833948196615517 39MiB |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
# after reboot
$ nvidia-settings

常用工具#

ifconfig 查网络:

sudo apt install -y net-tools
ifconfig

htop 查进程:

sudo apt install -y htop
htop
# 或,系统监控器
gnome-system-monitor -r
# 或,查 CPU 信息
cat /proc/cpuinfo

iostat 查 IO:

iostat -x -m 1 8
# 或,iotop
sudo apt install -y iotop
sudo iotop

nvidia-smi 查 GPU:

# 持续监测
nvidia-smi dmon
# 或,
watch -d -n 1 nvidia-smi

lshw 查硬件:

lshw -short
# 如,查产品型号
sudo lshw -C system

更多见 Linux Performance,如:

桌面优化#

可用 Tweaks 优化或定制 GNOME 桌面。其扩展可见: https://extensions.gnome.org

sudo apt install gnome-tweaks

屏幕分享#

Settings > Sharing > Screen Sharing ,启用屏幕分享。

系统最小化安装时,或于某些嵌入式版本的 Ubuntu ,不存在上述选项,需安装:

# 安装服务
sudo apt install vino
# 启用服务
/usr/lib/vino/vino-server
# SSH 登录启用服务
/usr/lib/vino/vino-server --display=:0

配置需关闭 require-encryption ,此后如 macOS Screen Sharing 等才可登录:

# sudo apt install dconf-editor
sudo apt install dconf-tools
dconf write /org/gnome/desktop/remote-access/require-encryption false

Ubuntu 可用 Remmina 客户端软件, VNC 进入远程桌面:

sudo apt install remmina remmina-plugin-vnc

屏幕录制#

  • Kazam: 屏幕录制
  • HandBrake: 格式转换

因为 Kazam 录制格式于其他平台可能存在问题,如微信。可用 HandBrake 转换成 MPEG-4 再分享。

sudo apt install kazam handbrake

媒体播放#

VLC media player 跨平台多媒体播放器及框架:

sudo snap install vlc

开发软件#

编译#

sudo apt install build-essential cmake git

编辑#

调试#

gdb 调试:

gdb --args <prog>

pstack 查进程堆栈:

sudo apt install -y pstack
pstack <pid>

strace 查进程堆栈:

sudo apt install -y strace
strace -o strace.txt -Ttt -f -p <pid>

Valgrind 调试或分析:

sudo apt install -y valgrind kcachegrind

MySQL#

MySQL Workbench 图形化管理工具:

sudo apt install -y mysql-workbench

Redis#

Redis Desktop Manager 图形化管理工具:

sudo snap install redis-desktop-manager

命令行工具:

$ sudo apt install -y redis-tools
$ redis-cli -h <ip> -p <port>
> AUTH password
> INFO

模型可视化#

Netron#

sudo snap install netron